Philip J. Havik received his PhD in Social Sciences from Leiden University, The Netherlands. He is Senior Researcher at the Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), and Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (FCSH) of the Universidade Nova in Lisbon. His multidisciplinary research centers on public health, tropical medicine, (post-) colonial administration, cultural brokerage, and entrepreneurship, with a special focus on West Africa. Alexander Keese has a PhD in History from the University of Freiburg, Germany, and a Habilitation from the University of Berne, Switzerland. He is Research Project Director of the project ForcedLabourAfrica (ERC Starting Grant 240898) at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany. He has published widely on colonial administration and labour-related issues in Portugal's and France's African empires. Maciel Santos received his PhD in History from the University of Oporto, Portugal, and is Professor at the Faculty of Letters of Oporto. Currently researcher at the Centro de Estudos Africanos of the Universidade do Porto (CEAUP) and Director of the international journal Africana Studia, edited by the CEAUP, he is the author of several publications on Portuguese colonial history.