Associate Professor Özgür Ünal Eriş received her BA from Istanbul Boğaziçi University, her MA from University of Exeter and her PhD degree from the University of Essex, UK. Her research interests mainly focus on new security threats, Turkey-EU relations, energy security, and she has published extensively about these issues. She currently works in the Department of Political Science and International Relations at İstanbul 29 Mayıs University, Turkey. Dr Ahmet Salih İkiz works at the Faculty of Political Science and International Relations at Muğla University, Turkey. He holds MSc degrees in International Financial Management and International Trade and Finance from Istanbul University and Lancaster University, UK, respectively. He completed his PhD on the shadow economy and economic growth in Turkey at Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey. He has published on EU studies, the shadow economy and the Turkish economy.